Carpet construction types
Traditional woven carpets such as axminster and wilton have been manufactured for over 200 years. The looms on which the carpets are woven have altered considerably over the years but the construction principle of interlocking the pile yarns with backing yarns is little changed.
Twist and velvet carpets have a different appearance and texture.
Axminster and Wilton carpet have pile and backing yarn woven together for strength and stability.
This image shows a twist carpet on the left and a velvet carpet on the right.
In an axminster gripper weave, cut tufts of yarn are inserted at the point of weaving by means of grippers. For each tuft to be inserted along the width of the carpet, there is a corresponding metal gripper which rises from the bed of the loom to grip the appropriate coloured end of yarn from the vertical yarn carrier. A knife blade slices the tuft to the correct length, the gripper then returns to the bed of the loom and places the tuft in the appropriate position, the weft shots of the backing yarns then bind it into place.
A traditional wilton weave carpet is one in which the pile threads run continuously into the carpet and are raised above the surface of the integral backing by means of wires or hooks. Wilton carpets are often cut or loop products and different yarn types can be used to produce different surface textures. Wilton weaving is not as versatile as axminster for the production of patterned carpets, due to continuous yarns that create waste yarn on the back of the carpet.